||The station Aspvreten (58 48N, 17 23E, 30 m asl.) is run by Stockholm University, ITM. The station is included in the national Swedish air monitoring network, part of the EMEP network and is used in various research projects. The station is located away from any local sources, placed in a boreal forest and is representative for the regional background in Mid-Sweden. Aspvreten is well equipped with instruments for determination of the physical and chemical properties of the aerosol. It is also equipped with meteorological instruments as well as basic instrumentation for gaseous compounds. Data are continuously published on the web.
||BEO Moussala (42 10N, 23 35E, 2971 m asl) is run by the Bulgarian Academy of Science. Because of the high elevation of the mountain observatory and because BEO is located far from any local source of pollution, the air is representative of synoptic scale atmospheric composition of the natural free-tropospheric background. BEO is equipped with automatic meteorological instrumentation as well as continuous measurements of gas concentrations of O3 and NOx, devices for radio aerosol research (7Be and 220Rn), X-ray fluorescence analysis for heavy metals and toxic elements, neutron and gamma background measurements. Visualisation of measurements in real-time is available on a web-site.
||The Birkenes atmospheric research station (58 23N, 8 15E 190 m asl.) is run by the Norwegian Institute for Air research (NILU).Birkenes is a joint supersite for EMEP and GAW and situated in the southern part of Norway. It has been in operation since 1971 and has been one of the keystone sites in Europe to study long-range transported air pollution. The long-term monitoring programme at Birkenes consists of meteorology, main inorganic components, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, ozone, VOC and particles. Particle mass is measured in two fractions (PM10 and PM2.5). The PM10 fractions in analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC -and WSOC). Size distribution is continuously being measured using a differential mobility particle sizer.
||The Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) (CBW, 51 18N, 04 55 37E, 60 m asl., The Netherlands). CESAR is situated in an agricultural area in the western part of The Netherlands, at 44 km from the North Sea, and in the vicinity of cities such as Amsterdam, The Hague Rotterdam and Utrecht, and major highways. Hence a variety of air masses can be encountered from clean maritime to continental polluted. The Cabauw observatory is owned and supervised by KNMI and has collectively brought together a suite of instrumentation for atmospheric research, including land-atmosphere interaction and cloud, aerosol and radiation interaction. EUSAAR relevant equipment includes operational observations of meteorological parameters, gaseous species and aerosol properties , aerosol optical depth using a CIMEL sun photometer (part of AERONET), and aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles using a backscatter lidar that in 2006 will be replaced by a Raman lidar (part of EARLINET). Negotiations to implement PM10 measurements are on-going. The aerosol measurements are coordinated by TNO. A network to monitor the measurements at a central computer, and visualisation of the data in real time through the internet will be implemented in 2005.
||The Finokalia station (FKL, 35 20N, 25 40E, 250m asl.) is run by the Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL) of the University of Crete. The FKL station is located in the SE Mediterranean and it is a unique station in the area regarding the long record in O3, oxidants, aerosol chemical composition and precipitation chemistry. It is located far from any local source of pollution, facing the sea within a sector 270o to 90o and the air is representative of synoptic scale atmospheric composition. FKL is equipped with in-situ meteorological instrumentation as well as continuous measurements of gaseous (O3, CO, NOx, and NOy), particulate (optical properties, chemical composition, mass and mass size distribution) and wet deposition. Due to the frequent presence of dust events the site is ideal for studying the interaction of gaseous compounds with heterogeneous surfaces (like dust and sea-salt).
||The Harwell Station (51 34 17N, 1 19 31W, 60 m asl.) is operated by the University of Birmingham, primarily on behalf of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) as a rural station representative of large scale air masses affecting Southern England. There are however, periods of easterly winds where it is directly in the plume from London (approx 80 km distance) and there are very marked differences between air composition on easterly and westerly trajectories. HWL is equipped with in-situ meteorological instrumentation as well as continuous measurements of gas phase (O3, NOx, SO2) and particulate (mass concentration, size distribution, chemical composition) pollutants. Data are downloaded by telemetry links to a central site.
||The high Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 46 32 N 7 59 E 3580 m asl.) is operated by the International Foundation High Altitude Research Stations Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat and is part of numerous networks (including NDSC, GAW). JFJ is located far from local sources and is well suited to determine the background above a continental area. A full suite of gas phase components are monitored (both in situ and column properties), by various groups, while aerosol measurements are performed by PSI. Since the station is within clouds 40 percent of the time, aerosol - cloud interaction can be studied as well. Visualization of measurements in real time is available through a web portal.
||The JRC-Ispra atmospheric research station (JRC, 45 49N, 8 38E, 209 m asl.) is run by the Institute for Environment and Sustainability of the EC - DG Joint Research Centre. JRC is located a few tens of km from local sources of pollution and is generally representative of the regional (quite polluted) atmospheric background. JRC is equipped with in-situ meteorological instrumentation as well as continuous measurements of gaseous, particulate (optical properties, size distribution, chemical composition) species. Visualisation of measurements in real time will be made available through a web portal by mid-2005. An aerosol LIDAR will also be installed by this time. JRC-Ispra also runs a sunphotometer as part of the AERONET network.
||The K-puszta station (KPO, 46 58N, 19 33E, 125 m asl.) is run by the Hungarian Meteorological Service and ACUV. The sampling site is relatively far from anthropogenic sources, it is 80km from Budapest in the SE direction and the largest nearby town is about 15km SE from the station. Samples collected at K-puszta represent the Central-Eastern European regional conditions. KPO is equipped with in-situ meteorological instrumentation and measurement of gases (O3, NOx, NH3, and SO2) and particulate matter (optical properties, size distribution, chemical composition) is also performed.
||The atmospheric research station Mace Head (MHD, 53 19 N, 9 53W, 5 m asl.) is a major facility of the National University of Ireland, Galway and is managed through the Mace Head Management Committee. It is a WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)global site. MHD has open exposure to the North Atlantic ocean and is representative of relatively clean background marine air. MHD is equipped with a wide range of state of the art in-situ gaseous, aerosol particulate and radiative instrumentation. It also is an automatic synoptic meteorological station. Visualisation and web casting of measurements in real time is available through a web portal. Continuous measurements and process studies are carried out at MHD and it is host to major intensive international field campaigns. Further details of the site are accessible on the web: http://macehead.nuigalway.ie.
||The IFT-Melpitz atmospheric research station (51 32N 12 54E 87 m asl.) is operated by the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. Melpitz is located a few tens of km northeast from Leipzig.. It can be described as rural polluted continental site. Melpitz is equipped with in-situ meteorological instrumentation as well as continuous gas (O3, CO, NOx, and SO2) and aerosol measurements (PM10, PM2.5, PM1 mass and chemical composition, Scattering and absorption coefficient, number size distribution). An aerosol Raman Lidar is frequently operated in Leipzig together with a sunphotometer within AERONET. In Melpitz, a small Raman Lidar and a second sunphotometer can be installed for campaign-wise measurements.
||The station of Montseny (MSY, 41 46N, 2 21E, 700 m asl,) is run by CSIC-IES within the framework of the Catalan atmospheric network. Montseny is located far from any local source of pollution and the air is representative of regional background. Montseny is equipped with PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 continuous measurements, and PM10 and PM2.5 Hivol samplers. PM10 and P2.5 are sampled 2 days per week; quartz filters collected are analyzed for chemical characterisation (levels of around 60 elements are determined)
||The station "O. Vittori" at Mt. Cimone (MTC, 44 11N, 10 42E, 2165 m asl.) is run by CNR-ISAC and it is part of WMO-GAW. The station is hosted in a military site of the Italian Air Force Meteorological Service. MTC, characterised by a free horizon for 360°, is located south of the Alps and of the Po Basin and represents a strategic platform to study the chemical-physical characteristics of the free troposphere in the Southern Europe and Northern Mediterranean area. A wide set of atmospheric compound measurements and meteorological parameters are carried out continuously at MTC. A satellite connection permits the remote control of the Station and data downloading while real time visualisation of measurements is available through the web portal http://www.isac.cnr.it/cimone/.
||The Observatory Ko¨etice (OBK, 49 30N, 15 05E, 534 m asl.) is background monitoring station run by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute within the national Air Quality monitoring network. The Observatory is located in agricultural countryside outside of settlement in the southern part of the Czech Republic far from any local source of pollution. OBK is equipped with in-situ meteorological instrumentation as well as continuous measurements of gaseous pollutants and PM. The programme of monitoring includes also methane, aldehydes+ketones, VOCs, and POPs.
||The station Pallas (PAL, 67 58N, 24 07E, 560 m asl.) is run by FMI within the framework of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program. PAL is located in a remote continental area in the northern border of the boreal forest zone in Europe. PAL is equipped with in-situ meteorological instrumentation as well as continuous measurements of particles, gaseous pollutants and greenhouse gases. The frequent presence of clouds allows measurements of cloud microphysical parameters and, during intensive campaigns, cloud chemical parameters.
||The Puy de Dôme station (PDD, 45 46N, 2 57E, 1465 m asl.) is run by CNRS within the framework of the national atmospheric chemistry network. PDD is located a few tens of km from local sources of pollution and the air is representative of the synoptic-scale atmospheric composition of the regional (polluted) atmospheric background. PDD is equipped with in-situ meteorological instrumentation as well as continuous measurements of gaseous species(O3, CO, NOx, NOy, and SO2), particulate species (optical properties, size distribution, chemical composition) and radionucleides. Visualisation of measurements in real is available through a web portal. Due to the frequent presence of clouds, the site is also equipped for retrieval of cloud microphysical and chemical parameters.
||The Preila environmental pollution research station (55 55N, 21 00E, 5 m asl.) is located in western Lithuania on the coast of the Baltic Sea, on the Curonian Spit. It is a narrow sandy strip that separates the Baltic Sea and the Curonian Bay. This monitoring site was selected according to strict sitting criteria designed to avoid undue influence from point sources, area sources and local activities. Marine, sub-marine climate is specific to this terrain. Preila is equipped with in-situ meteorological instrumentation as well as measurements of gaseous (O3, NO2, and SO2 ) and particles ( size distribution, chemical composition).
||The SMEAR II station (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations)
in Hyytiälä (61 51N, 24 17E, 181 m above sea level, 220 km NW from Helsinki) is run by
UH.DPS in Hyytiälä, Finland. It includes several measurement towers, and a 60 m2 cottage
for instruments and computers. The air quality at the site represents typical background
conditions of higher latitudes of Europe. The air masses are dominantly influenced by
European pollution but at times very clean arctic air is observed. The station is
located within Scots pine stand. SMEAR II station has top class instrumentation for
measurements of aerosol microphysics, atmospheric chemistry, and micrometeorology.
SMEAR II facility is a unique field measurement station designed for continuous study
of the phenomena having coupled physical, chemical and biological features requiring
diverse instrumentation and know-how. SMEAR II facility is planned and implemented to
determine material and energy flows in the atmosphere-vegetation-soil continuum at
different temporal and spatial scales.
||The EMEP station of Vavihill (VHL, 56 01N, 13 09E, 172 m asl.) is operated by ULUND as an EMEP station (SE11) since 1984, and additional laboratory facilities and aerosol equipment was installed by ULUND starting 1999. The Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) is responsible for the EMEP measurements. VHL is a continental backgound site with no local sources of pollution, situated in the southern-most part of Sweden. It is well-suited for studies of the influx of polluted air from continental Europe to the Nordic countries along a south-north transect. VHL is equipped with meteorological instrumentation and measurements of gases, aerosol particles and precipitation chemistry. Measurements of submicrometer aerosol particle size distributions started in 2000.
||The Norwegian Institute for Air research (NILU) is responsible for the research activities at Zeppelin International Research and Monitoring Facility (78 55N, 11 54E, 474 m asl.). The ongoing montitoring is performed in cooperation with Stockholm University (SU). Zeppelin is defined as a joint supersite for EMEP and GAW. The station is recognised as one of the few European Arctic atmospheric remote stations with highly relevant long-term monitoring data series. The station offers modern facilities and instrumentation for atmospheric monitoring. The ongoing particle measurements consist of chemical speciation, physical and optical properties of aerosols.